Water, a transparent fluid, is the lifeline of our planet, forming the majority of the world’s streams, lakes, oceans, and rain, and serving as a crucial part of living organisms. As a chemical compound, water is composed of one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds.

Existing typically as a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, water also co-exists on Earth in solid state (ice) and gaseous state (steam or water vapor). Other forms include snow, fog, dew, and clouds.

Covering 71% of the Earth’s surface, water is instrumental for all known forms of life. The distribution of water on Earth is predominantly in seas and oceans (96.5%), with smaller fractions found in groundwater, glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, and a tiny amount in the air as vapor, clouds, and precipitation.

Of all the Earth’s water, only 2.5% is freshwater. This vital resource is primarily stored in ice and groundwater, with less than 0.3% found in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere. An even smaller fraction is contained within living organisms and manufactured products.

Water on Earth is continuously cycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and runoff in a process known as the water cycle. Water also plays a vital role in the world economy, acting as a universal solvent for many chemical substances, facilitating industrial cooling and transportation, and being critical for agriculture, which accounts for about 70% of the fresh water used by humans.

Despite improvements in accessibility over the years, around one billion people still lack access to safe water, and over 2.5 billion lack adequate sanitation. Projections suggest that water scarcity may become an increasing issue, with over half of the world’s population potentially facing water-based vulnerability by 2025.

Thus, water is not just a simple chemical compound. It is a fundamental part of life, an essential resource for various industries, and a critical issue in global socio-economic development and sustainability.

The Flood Co
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