A flood refers to the overflow or accumulation of water that submerges land typically expected to be dry. This situation might arise due to an overflow from water bodies like rivers or lakes, especially when water breaches levees, or it could be due to heavy rainfall accumulating on saturated ground. Floods can also occur in rivers when the water flow exceeds the capacity of the river channel. The impact of flooding can range from localized damage, affecting a neighborhood or community, to large-scale devastation, impacting entire river basins. Floods often lead to significant damage to properties, especially those situated in the natural flood plains of rivers. While some floods develop gradually, others, known as flash floods, can materialize quickly without apparent signs of rainfall. Despite the potential risks, human settlements have often been established near rivers due to the flat, fertile land and easy access to travel and commerce that they provide.

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